Due to the wealth from the expanded empire and the empires centrality to trade between africa and asia, a cultural flowering called the islamic golden age begins. Much of this is centered in baghdad, including the famed house of wisdom, a grand library of collected writings. The first degree-granting university is created, and great classical works by copernicus, aristotle, and many others are translated into arabic and preserved.
Muhammad, at the age of forty, reports receiving revelations from the archangel gabriel. He reports these revelations, and his followers memorize and transcribe them into the quran. He starts preaching to the people of mecca, but the meccan ruling class, the quraysh, is threatened and considers him a threat to their power.
After continued persecution in mecca, muhammad, together with his followers and family, performs the hijra (emigration) to the city of medina. Shortly after arriving, muhammad creates the constitution of medina, which creates the first islamic state. It institutes rights and responsibilities for all the natives of medina, including religious freedom, barring of all violence and weapons in medina, the security of women, stability in tribal relations, and a justice system for settling disputes. The tribes of medina also agree to band together against outside threats for defense.
At the battle of siffin, muawiyahs forces come against alis, but the battle ultimately ends in negotiation. He comes to an agreement with muawiya to unify the factions of islam, giving the control of the caliphate over to muawiya, who founds the umayyad caliphate.
Dawat e islami is an international non-profit islamic organization which is propagating islamic knowledge and enlighting the message of islam across the globe.
The first fitna, or civil war, begins in 656, and it marks the first time muslim forces battle other muslim forces. Muawiyah, muslim governor of syria, tries to claim power over the current caliph, ali, and goes to war against him.
The descendants of muhammads uncle, abbas ibn abd al-muttalib, rally discontented non-arab converts, poor arabs, and some shia against the umayyads, and overthrow the umayyads.
The study of the earliest periods in islamic history is made difficult by a lack of sources. For example, the most important historiographical source for the origins of islam is the work of al-tabari.
After the meccans break the peace by attacking a tribe allied to the muslims, muhammad gathers his forces for an invasion of mecca. He splits his army into four columns so as to overwhelm the defenders. Only one column faces any resistance, which quickly surrenders, and muhammad takes the city with nearly no deaths.
After the death of muawiya, strife breaks out between muslims over his succession. This is recognized as the first official break between sunni muslims, who believe in the legitimacy of all four rashidun caliphs, and the shia, who believe that only ali and his descendants have the right to rule. The umayyad forces are eventually able to put the uprisings down during the siege of mecca in 692.
Th leaders of the makhzum and the banu abd-shams, two important tribes of the ruling quraysh, declare a boycott against the muslims and their supporting clan, the banu hashim (or the hashemites). Under the boycott, no one may marry or trade with them, and the tribes hope this extreme pressure will convince the muslims to stop supporting muhammad.
The boycott is revoked, but only after the hashemites are forced to migrate to a different area. Both abu talib, muhammads uncle, and khadijah, muhammads first wife, die as a result of the boycott, making this the year of sorrow.
Due to contact with industrialized nations, muslim populations spread due to economic migration. The population of muslims starts to double around 18, spreading into eastern asia, the caribbean, and sub-saharan africa. Migration also eventually spreads to countries in western europe.
Under the command of halagu khan, the mongols invade baghdad with the intention of extending their rule further into mesopotamia. After capturing the city, they kill al-mustasim, the final abbasid caliph, and destroy much of the grand libraries of abassids, including the house of wisdom.
After some inconclusive battles, arabic tribes ally with mecca against the muslims in medina and besiege the city. However, thanks to digging a trench around the city, which nullifies the invaders cavalry and the citys natural defenses, muhammad is able to negotiate, and, eventually, break up the alliance. This, combined with the well-organized defense and poor weather for the invaders, gives the muslims a decisive victory.
islam began in arabia and was revealed to humanity by the prophet muhammad.
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Islam ( s l m arabic , romanized al-islm, () submission to god) is an abrahamic religion teaching that there is only one god, taking muhammad as a messenger of god.
The meccan tribe the quraysh reach a ten-year truce with the muslims in medina called the treaty of hudaybiyyah. This allows muslims to return the next year for a peaceful pilgrimage, called the first pilgrimage.
By the time of muhammads death, the arabian tribes have all converted to islam. Control of the muslims passes to the rashidun (the rightly guided) caliphate, which contains first four leaders of islam after muhammad.
Islam Five Pillars, Nation of Islam & Definition HISTORY
Islam is the second largest religion in the world after christianity, with about 1. Although its roots go back further, scholars typically date the creation of islam to.
Video on sadaqah in hard times and reflecting on the prophets (saw) examples watch a short video on sadaqah in hard times and reflecting on the prophets (saw) examples by shaikh faid m said at the islamic cultural centre and the london central mosque trust.